Compact Spring Supports Designed for an Oil Refinery

October 19, 2021

Compact Spring Supports Designed for 9k Load at an Oil Refinery

Type: Compact Spring Supports
Material: Carbon Steel w/ Hot-Dipped Galvanized (HDG)
Design: 9,000 lb. Load | +/-0.125″ Vertical Movement
Testing: Load Testing

PT&P custom-designed 76 compact spring supports or “disc spring” supports for a major oil refinery. This type of spring supports is ideal for locating under equipment flanges to limit excessive loads on sensitive equipment. PT&P has supplied custom compact springs for over a decade as the industry leader in plants all over the world. Compact springs are used for small travel systems to prevent equipment failures, assure safe plant operations, and reduce operational costs. Such springs can support loads equal loads to conventional springs while using 50% less space. If not addressed, pipe strain can cause misalignment, thermal expansion, and pipe-lift off resulting in strain on expensive equipment. For example in a typical refinery, upwards of $15M a year is spent on pump repair alone due to pipe strain issues. Compact springs are used in systems to support Centrifugal pumps and compressors, air-cooled heat exchangers, vessels, and steam turbines while addressing regulatory codes for API, ASME, UBC, and government compliance for organizations such as OSHA, EPA, WISHA, etc.

The springs are stainless steel Belleville washers and the housing is fabricated from A-36 carbon steel with a hot-dipped galvanized finish to protect against corrosion. The assemblies are 3″ high, designed to support a 9,000 load and movement of +/-.125″ (upward). Each assembly underwent load testing before shipment. Compact springs are specifically designed to minimize excessive loads on process equipment by managing nozzle loads and the flange seal and can be installed directly under the equipment. Another benefit of compact springs is to address corrosive environments (saltwater, marine air, or chemicals) by manufacturing them with metals like stainless steel and/or using amorphous glass coatings making them impervious to corrosion.

Variable Spring Hangers Designed for a Biofuels Plant

May 25, 2021

Variable Spring Hangers Designed for a Biofuels Plant

PT&P designed and fabricated B-Type variable spring support assemblies for a biofuels plant. The variables will support pipelines that are involved in the process of converting feedstock into low-carbon synthetic crude oil. Primary biofuels are bioethanol and biodiesel. PT&P specializes in manufacturing pipe supports for high temperatures (above 750°F) applications. These variable springs will support loads up to 953 lb., insulated piping up to 1625°F, and with 1.5” upwards movement. A custom-designed 4-bolt riser clamp fabricated from A36 carbon steel for a 3” diameter pipe was also supplied for this order and used at another location in the plant. The rest of the variable spring assemblies utilized custom-designed 2-bolt pipe clamps manufactured from A240 316L stainless steel plate with A 193 GR. B8M CL.1 bolting for high temperatures. Since these variable springs were located outside the firebox and not exposed to high temperatures, they were fabricated from A36 carbon steel and hot-dipped galvanized for corrosion protection. Load and travel tests, along with Q.C. inspections were performed before shipment.

Load and travel tests, along with Q.C. inspections were performed before shipment. Biofuels are expected to double their market share by 2027. Biofuels are a subset of the new emerging demand and regulatory shift to renewables being seen in the energy sector. In addition to biofuels, other renewables include energy from solar, wind, hydroelectric, ocean, geothermal, and hydrogen sources. There has been a change in strategy for many refineries accelerated by the downturn due to COVID, to convert traditional fossil fuel refineries to renewables. With expertise and over 45 years of experience, PT&P is well-positioned to serve its customers and emerging players in the renewable energy sector. Piping Technology & Product’s specialty is the design and fabrication of products like furnace springs, constants, customized clamps, and hardware in supporting high-temperature headers and radiant coils within fired heaters.

Variable Spring Supports Designed for a Large Refinery Project in Texas

April 20, 2021

Variable Spring Supports Designed for a Large Refinery Project in Texas

PT&P manufactured 266 variable spring supports for a refinery in Texas. The variable spring hangers include chained travel stops for ease of disengagement and reinsertion during plant shutdowns. Variable springs (a type of Compression spring) are used in a wide range of applications (including various Low Carbon Capital projects, CO2 removal units, and Infrastructure improvements) to support the piping system. The variables are fabricated from carbon steel and hot-dipped galvanized to protect against corrosion. The PTP-2 variables were designed for loads up to 13,850 lb. and movements up to 0.1875” upwards. The PTP-4 variables were designed for a maximum load of 15,050 lb. and movements up to 0.8125” upwards. Each spring hanger underwent standard load testing and QC tests. PT&P also provided constant supports for loads that remain uniform throughout the deflection cycle and sway struts for controlling vibration and shock loading while restraining movement due to thermal expansion for this order.

240 Type-C Furnace Springs Supplied to Indonesia

December 16, 2019

 

240 Custom Designed Type-C Furnace Springs for a Furnace Application in Indonesia

Type: Variable Spring Supports
Size: 95-1/16” Overall Length
Material: A36 Carbon Steel
Design:  2,033 lb. Load | 225 lb./in Spring Rate
Testing: Load and Travel Tests

PT&P custom designed 240 of these Type-C furnace springs for a customer in Indonesia. The assemblies are completely fabricated from A36 carbon steel with a red oxide primer finish. The completed spring hanger assemblies are 95-1/16” overall length. They are designed for an operating load of 2,033 lbs and have a spring rate of 225 lbs./in. To ensure quality the furnace springs had a spring load test report and a spring calibration test to ensure spring rate shall not deviate more than +/- 5% from catalog value.

Variable Spring Hangers Designed for a Plant in Texas

April 22, 2019

Variable Spring Hangers Designed for a Plant in Texas

Type: B-Type Variable Spring Supports
Size: PTP 100 & 200 | 3′ – 8′ ft. Height
Design: 4,000 lb. – 17,000 lb. Loads
Material: HDG Carbon Steel | Neoprene Coated Springs
Testing: Standard Load Test | Q.C. Tests

Piping Technology and Products, Inc. recently designed and fabricated B-Type variable spring supports for a plant in Texas. The operating loads range from 4,000 lb. to 17,000 lb. The variable springs are fabricated from galvanized carbon steel, have neoprene coated steel spring coils, and are designed to operate in environments up to 750°F. They have an overall height range from 3 ft. to 8 ft″. To ensure quality, standard load tests were performed prior to shipment.

Variable Springs Designed for a High Temperature Furnace Application

July 23, 2018

PT&P Custom Designed Furnace Spring Support Cans For Chemical Plant

Type: Variable Spring Supports – Furnace
Material: Carbon Steel w/ Red Oxide Primer
Design: 1,261 lb. Load | 9″ Vertical
Testing: Load and Travel Tests

PT&P custom designed and fabricated variable spring supports for a furnace application at a chemical plant in California. The furnace cans are carbon steel and painted with red oxide primer to avoid any potential hazards, where exposed to high temperatures. The springs are designed for an operating load of 1,261 lb., with movement of 9” and dimensions of 6″ x 52″ in length. Load tests were performed prior to a 12-14 week shipment.

Constant Spring Supports for an Oil Refinery in Texas

July 9, 2018

Custom Designed U-Type Constant Spring Supports for an Oil Refinery in Texas

Type: Constant Spring Supports
Material: Carbon Steel w/ HDG Finish
Design: 4,000 lb. Load | 3 1/2″-9 1/2″ Vertical
Testing: Load and Travel Tests

PT&P custom designed and manufactured ten 200 U-Type constant spring supports with slide plates for a Oil Refinery in Texas. They are fabricated from A36 carbon steel with an HDG finish for plates, angles, and cans. Its dimensions are 31″ in height and 52″ in length with 19” in width. They are designed for a movement of 3 ½” up to 9 ½” and an operating load of 1100 lbs up to 4800 lbs. They were custom designed to match the box dimensions of a competitor. The units had a Standard Load Test performed prior to shipment.

Big Ton Spring Supports for an Oil Refinery in Australia

July 2, 2018

PT&P Custom Designed Big Ton Spring Supports for an Oil Refinery in Australia

Type: Big Ton Spring Supports
Material: Carbon Steel w/ HDG Finish
Design: 13,457 lb. Load | 0.35" Vertical
Testing: Load and Travel Tests

These big ton springs are used in supporting large heavy units such as compressors, vessels and pumps in power and petrochemical plants. The housing and frame are fabricated from carbon steel and hot-dipped galvanized, and the spring coils are dipped in a neoprene coating. The units are 48” x 40” x 20”. The big ton spring support is designed to allow limited movement of 0.35″ upwards and an operating load of 13,457 lb. This design saved the customer from having to entirely redesign the piping system, which saved them thousands of dollars. Load and travel tests were performed prior to shipping to an oil refinery in Australia.

Constant Spring Support Assemblies for an LNG Plant in Central Africa

June 18, 2018

PT&P Designed and Fabricated Constant Spring Support Assemblies for an LNG Plant in Central Africa.

Type: Constant Spring Supports
Material: A36 Carbon Steel w/ HDG Finish
Design: 1,790 lb. Load | 8″ Vertical
Testing: Load and Travel Tests

These constant spring supports were modified to increase their installed height. The constants range in size from 20.5” in height, 38.75” in length, and 13” in width. They’re designed for a load up to 1790 lb. and a vertical movement range of 8″. All constants were fabricated from A-36 carbon steel and hot-dipped galvanized. Each assembly went through standard load and travel testing per MSS Standards. The constants were shipped within 6 to 8 weeks to an LNG plant in Africa.

C-Type Constant Springs Designed for a Chemical Plant in Italy

January 29, 2018

C-Type Constant Springs Designed for a Chemical Plant in Italy

Type: Constant Spring Supports
Size: 14″ x 19″ x 64″
Material: A36 Carbon Steel
Design: 2 1/2” to 5” Total Travel and 7,681 lb. Load
Testing: Standard Load and Travel Tests

PT&P custom designed and manufactured C-Type constant spring supports for a chemical plant in Italy. The constants were designed for travel from 2 1/2” to 5” and are specified to carry a load of 7,681 lb. They are fabricated from A36 carbon steel and have a physical size of 14″ x 19″ x 64″. The supports were designed for max deviation of 6%. The standard load adjustment is 10%. However, this unit was designed with capability of up to 20%, while the standard load deviation is 4%. This constant was custom designed to allow for single pin connection with negligible constant frame at the pin connection. A multi-position locking device was installed, and standard load and travel tests were performed to ensure quality and precise performance.

Custom All Stainless Steel Variable Spring Supports for a Floating LNG Platform in Singapore

January 2, 2018

Custom All Stainless Steel Variable Spring Supports for a Floating LNG Platform in Singapore

Type: Variable Spring Supports
Material: Alloy 2205 Duplex/SAE 5160H
Design: Operating Load up to 3,597 lbs./Operating Temperatures of -15-200°F
Testing: Standard Load & Travel Tests

PT&P manufactured these custom variable spring supports for a floating LNG platform in Singapore. The spring housings are fabricated with alloy 2205 duplex and the coil manufactured from – SAE 5160H. The variables installed heights that range from 10-3/4” to 12–1/16” and are designed for an operating load up to 3,597 lbs. Also load test dye penetrate test was performed operating temperatures of -15°F. These variable springs are also designed to suit a high corrosive environment. They can operate in temperaturs ranging from -14-200°F without compromising its load carrying capacity.

100-E Type Constant Spring Supports Custom Designed for a Power Plant in Canada

December 11, 2017

100-E Type Constant Spring Supports Custom Designed for a Power Plant in Canada

Type: Constant Spring Supports
Size: 52 1/4″ x 62 1/8″
Material: Carbon Steel
Design: Operating Load 21,600 to 26,350 lbs & of 3-7” of Movement
Testing: Standard Load & Travel Tests

PT&P custom designed and manufactured constant spring supports for a power plant in Canada. A total of four constant assemblies were fabricated from carbon steel. The customer designed with dimensions of 100-73-E, & 100-69-E with a thermo chemical process. They are designed for operating load 21,600 to 26,350 lbs and operating movement of 3-7” of movement. Load and travel testing were performed prior to the shipment.

Pipe Support Field Service: Problem Resolution

November 27, 2017

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Pipe Support Engineering & Design

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Compact Spring Support Webinar

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Pipe Supports and Expansion Joints for Furnace Applications Webinar

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Engineered Spring Supports (Practical, Hands-on Approach) Webinar

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Constant Spring Supports Design and Application Webinar

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Corrosion Protection

October 9, 2017

Corrosion protection

This technical bulletin will consider four methods of protecting carbon steel pipe supports components from corrosion; painting, zinc coatings, hot dip galvanizing, and combinations of these. Painting has an advantage when appearance and choice of color are important. Modern painting systems may be appropriate protection in certain environments. Paint provides “barrier” protection to a metal surface. The ability of zinc to provide cathdoic protection for carbon steel in addition to barrier protection is a fundamental advantage. In most cases the reduction in life-cycle costs justifies the small additional cost of galvanizing. Indeed painting and galvanizing together can provide a synergistic benefit which may be justified in some cases.

The use of zinc and galvanizing has a long history. The early patents for hot dip galvanizing were issued in France and England in 1836 and 1837. This technology was quickly adopted and was widely used in the late-1800s. In the United States we have bridges more than 100 years old which have galvanized structures. In addition, we have transmission towers and substation structures that are over 70 years old. A pipe rack at a petrochemical plant near Houston was studied after 28 years of service. Measurements of the zinc thickness remaining provided a forecast of another 60 years of service. Pulp and paper mills use galvanized materials in most of their critical environments. It is important to understand the fundamentals which make this “old” technology so cost effective in such a wide variety of applications.

Electrochemistry of Zinc & Carbon Steel

Corrosion is an electrochemical process which occurs when four elements are present; an anode which gives up electrons, a cathode which receives electrons, an electrolyte (which is usually an aqueous solution of acids, bases, or salts) and a metallic current path. The rate at which corrosion occurs depends on the electric potential between the anodic and cathodic areas, the pH of the electrolyte, the temperature, and the water and oxygen available for chemical reactions.

Effect of corrosion on carbon steel
Figure 1 indicates how corrosion damages carbon steel. Note that the pitted area to the right is anodic and gives up electrons while the cathodic area to the left (where water and oxygen from the air are present) is where rust appears. The pitted area where the carbon steel is weakened is not where the rust appears.
Zinc corrosionEffect of corrosion on zinc and carbon steel
Zinc has a greater tendency to give up electrons than carbon steel, so when both are present, zinc becomes the anode and protects the carbon steel. Figure 2 indicates corrosion with the zinc giving up the electrons and becoming pitted while the carbon steel remains undamaged. From this we see that a zinc coating will protect carbon steel by “sacrificing” itself until the zinc is depleted. The rate of zinc depletion is relatively slow when the pH of the electrolyte is between 4 and 13.

Hot dip galvanizing has two advantages over a zinc coating. During galvanizing, the molten zinc reacts with the carbon steel to form layers of zinc/iron alloys. Figure 3 shows a galvanized surface with 5 layers, the top layer is 100% zinc and the bottom layer is carbon steel. The alloy layers between have increased hardness to provide mechanical (barrier) protection and because of their zinc content they are also anodic relative to carbon steel. The hardness of these alloy layers provides much more protection from scratches than paint can provide. This is important for most pipe supports applications.

Picture of the galvanized surface on carbon steel
  • Eta layer 100: Zn 70 DPN hardness
  • Zeta layer 94% Zn 6% Fe 179 DPN hardness
  • Delta layer 90% Zn 10% Fe 224 DPN hardness
  • Gamma layer 75 Zn 25% Fe
  • Carbon Steel 159 DPN hardness

Any coating which provides a barrier to the moisture and oxygen in the air will help protect carbon steel from corrosion. A properly painted surface will provide a barrier, but it is subject to scratching from contact with hard objects. Figure 4 illustrates how rust can grow and damage a painted surface when corrosion begins because the paint barrier is broken by a scratch.

Effect of Rust on a steel surface
Figure 4

Zinc coating for steel

Figure 5 illustrates the cathodic protection provided when a galvanized surface is scratched.

Duplex Systems usually require painting over galvanizing. Some of our customers have specified a duplex system. This is more expensive but it can be justified for certain corrosive environments or for appearance. The American Galvanizing Association suggests the following “rule of thumb” to estimate the service life of a duplex system.

(Duplex System Service Life) = 1.5* (Service Life: HDG Only) + (Service Life: Paint Only)
*The synergistic multiplier of 1.5 is based on the barrier protection the paint provides for the galvanized surface.

At Piping Technology and Products Inc., many customers have returned painted variable and constant spring supports which could no longer function due to corrosion. Costs must be considered during the specification of coatings for pipe supports. The owner and operator of a facility should consider life-cycle costs. Pipe supports are usually a relatively small percentage of the total cost of installing and operating a power plant, petrochemical plant, paper mill or other major facility. The small additional cost of hot dip galvanizing the carbon steel components of pipe supports is most always a wise investment.

For more information you may want to contact the following organization:

American Galvanizing Association-AGA
12200 E. Illif #204 Aurora, CO 80014
ph 800-468-7732

National Association of Corrosion Engineers-NACE
1440 S. Creek Dr. Houston, Tx 77084
ph 713-492-0535

PT&P Engineering and Design

October 3, 2017
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