Pipe Support Field Service: Problem Resolution

Pipe Support Field Inspection, Installation & Maintenance

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Pipe Support Engineering & Design

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Methods of Protecting Against Corrosion

October 7, 2017

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This technical bulletin will consider four methods of protecting carbon steel pipe supports components from corrosion; painting, zinc coatings, hot dip galvanizing, and combinations of these. Painting has an advantage when appearance and choice of color are important. Modern painting systems may be appropriate protection in certain environments. Paint provides “barrier” protection to a metal surface. The ability of zinc to provide cathdoic protection for carbon steel in addition to barrier protection is a fundamental advantage. In most cases the reduction in life-cycle costs justifies the small additional cost of galvanizing. Indeed painting and galvanizing together can provide a synergistic benefit which may be justified in some cases.

The use of zinc and galvanizing has a long history. The early patents for hot dip galvanizing were issued in France and England in 1836 and 1837. This technology was quickly adopted and was widely used in the late-1800s. In the United States we have bridges more than 100 years old which have galvanized structures. In addition, we have transmission towers and substation structures that are over 70 years old. A pipe rack at a petrochemical plant near Houston was studied after 28 years of service. Measurements of the zinc thickness remaining provided a forecast of another 60 years of service. Pulp and paper mills use galvanized materials in most of their critical environments. It is important to understand the fundamentals which make this “old” technology so cost effective in such a wide variety of applications.

Electrochemistry of Zinc & Carbon Steel

Corrosion is an electrochemical process which occurs when four elements are present; an anode which gives up electrons, a cathode which receives electrons, an electrolyte (which is usually an aqueous solution of acids, bases, or salts) and a metallic current path. The rate at which corrosion occurs depends on the electric potential between the anodic and cathodic areas, the pH of the electrolyte, the temperature, and the water and oxygen available for chemical reactions.

Carbonsteel corroson figure 1

Figure 1  (above) indicates how corrosion damages carbon steel. Note that the pitted area to the right is anodic and gives up electrons while the cathodic area to the left (where water and oxygen from the air are present) is where rust appears. The pitted area where the carbon steel is weakened is not where the rust appears.

Zinc corrosion

Zinc has a greater tendency to give up electrons than carbon steel, so when both are present, zinc becomes the anode and protects the carbon steel. Figure 2 indicates corrosion with the zinc giving up the electrons and becoming pitted while the carbon steel remains undamaged. From this we see that a zinc coating will protect carbon steel by “sacrificing” itself until the zinc is depleted. The rate of zinc depletion is relatively slow when the pH of the electrolyte is between 4 and 13.

Hot dip galvanizing has two advantages over a zinc coating. During galvanizing, the molten zinc reacts with the carbon steel to form layers of zinc/iron alloys. Figure 3 shows a galvanized surface with 5 layers, the top layer is 100% zinc and the bottom layer is carbon steel. The alloy layers between have increased hardness to provide mechanical (barrier) protection and because of their zinc content they are also anodic relative to carbon steel. The hardness of these alloy layers provides much more protection from scratches than paint can provide. This is important for most pipe supports applications.

Galvanized surface

  • Eta layer 100: Zn 70 DPN hardness
  • Zeta layer 94% Zn 6% Fe 179 DPN hardness
  • Delta layer 90% Zn 10% Fe 224 DPN hardness
  • Gamma layer 75 Zn 25% Fe
  • Carbon Steel 159 DPN hardness

Any coating which provides a barrier to the moisture and oxygen in the air will help protect carbon steel from corrosion. A properly painted surface will provide a barrier, but it is subject to scratching from contact with hard objects. Figure 4 illustrates how rust can grow and damage a painted surface when corrosion begins because the paint barrier is broken by a scratch.

Rust surface
Figure 4

Figure 5 illustrates the cathodic protection provided when a galvanized surface is scratched.

Zinc coating
Figure 5

Duplex Systems usually require painting over galvanizing. Some of our customers have specified a duplex system. This is more expensive but it can be justified for certain corrosive environments or for appearance. The American Galvanizing Association suggests the following “rule of thumb” to estimate the service life of a duplex system.

(Duplex System Service Life) = 1.5* (Service Life: HDG Only) + (Service Life: Paint Only)
*The synergistic multiplier of 1.5 is based on the barrier protection the paint provides for the galvanized surface.

At Piping Technology and Products Inc., many customers have returned painted variable and constant spring supports which could no longer function due to corrosion. Costs must be considered during the specification of coatings for pipe supports. The owner and operator of a facility should consider life-cycle costs. Pipe supports are usually a relatively small percentage of the total cost of installing and operating a power plant, petrochemical plant, paper mill or other major facility. The small additional cost of hot dip galvanizing the carbon steel components of pipe supports is most always a wise investment.

For more information you may want to contact the following organization:

American Galvanizing Association-AGA
12200 E. Illif #204 Aurora, CO 80014
Phone – 800-468-7732

National Association of Corrosion Engineers-NACE
1440 S. Creek Dr. Houston, Tx 77084
Phone – 713-492-0535

Comparative Corrosion Resistance Guide

October 2, 2017
Medium Concentration Temp. °F 304 Stainless 316 Stainless 410 Stainless 416 Stainless 430 Stainless Nickel Alloy 400 Nickel Alloy C-276 PVC High Density Polyethylene Polypropylene FRP (Extren® 500/525)
Acetic Acid 20% 70° Good Good Good Poor Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Acetic Acid 50% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Poor Good Good
Acetic Acid 80% 70° Good Good Poor Good Fair Good Fair Fair Good
Acetic Acid 100% 70° Good Good Good Poor Good Fair Good Fair Good Fair
Acetic Acid 50% Boiling Fair Good Poor Poor Fair Good Fair Good Good Not Recommended
Acetic Acid 80% Boiling Poor Good Poor Poor Fair Good Poor Good Fair Not Recommended
Acetic Acid 100% Boiling Fair Good Poor Poor Fair Good Poor Fair Fair Not Recommended
Acetic Anhydride 90% 70° Good Good Poor Good Fair Good Poor Good Good Not Recommended
Acetic Anhydride 90% Boiling Good Good Fair Poor Fair Fair Good Poor Good Good Not Recommended
Acetic Vapors 30% Hot Fair Good Poor Fair Fair Poor Poor Not Recommended
Acetic Vapors 100% Hot Fair Poor Fair Fair Poor Poor Not Recommended
Acetone 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Not Recommended Good Not Recommended
Acetone Boiling Good Good Good Good Good Good Poor Fair Fair Not Recommended
Acetylene 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good
Alcohol 3 ½- 4 ½ % 160° Good Good Not Recommended
Alcohol, Ethyl 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Fair Good Not Recommended
Alcohol, Ethyl Boiling Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Alcohol, Methyl 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Alcohol, Methyl 150° Fair Good Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Aluminum Molten Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor
Aluminum Acetate Saturated 70° Good Good Fair Good Good
Aluminum Acetate Saturated Boiling Good Good Fair Fair Good
Aluminum Chloride 25% 70° Poor Fair Poor Poor Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Aluminum Chloride Saturated 70° Poor Poor Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Aluminum Fluoride 70° Fair Poor Fair Good Good Good
Aluminum Hydroxide Saturated 70° Good Good Good Poor Fair Good Good Good
Aluminum Potassium Sulphate 2% and 10% 70° Good Good Good Poor Fair Good Poor Good Good
Aluminum Potassium Sulphate 2% and 10% Boiling Good Good Fair Poor Fair Good Good Good Good
Aluminum Potassium Sulphate Saturated Boiling Good Good Fair Poor Fair Good Good Fair Good
Aluminum Sulphate 10% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Good Good
Aluminum Sulphate Saturated 70° Good Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Fair Good
Aluminum Sulphate 10% Boiling Good Good Poor Poor Poor Good Good Fair Good
Aluminum Sulphate Saturated Boiling Good Good Poor Poor Poor Good Good Fair Good
Ammonia (Dry & Moist) All Concentrations 70°/212° Good Good Poor Good Poor Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Medium Concentration Temp. °F 304 Stainless 316 Stainless 410 Stainless 416 Stainless 430 Stainless Nickel Alloy 400 Nickel Alloy C-276 PVC High Density Polyethylene Polypropylene FRP (Extren® 500/525)
Ammonia (Dry & Moist) Anhydrous 70° Good Good Poor Good Poor Good Fair Good Not Recommended
Ammonia (Dry & Moist) Anhydrous Hot Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Not Recommended Good Not Recommended
Ammonium Bicarbonate 70° Good Good Poor Good Poor Fair Poor Good Poor Good
Ammonium Bicarbonate Hot Good Good Poor Good Poor Poor Poor Good Poor Not Recommended
Ammonium Carbonate 1%and 5% 70° Good Good Good Good Good Poor Fair Good Good Good Not Recommended
Ammonium Carbonate Aerated 70° Good Good Good Good Good Poor Fair Good Good Good Not Recommended
Ammonium Chloride 1% 70° Good Good Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good
Ammonium Chloride 1%/28%/50% Boiling Good Good Poor Fair Good Good Good Good
Ammonium Hydroxide 70° Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Fair Good Good Good Not Recommended
Ammonium Nitrates All Concentrations 70° Good Good Poor Good Poor Fair Good Good Good Good
Ammonium Nitrates Saturated Boiling Good Good Good Poor Good Poor Poor Good Good Good
Ammonium Oxolate 5% 70° Good Good Good Poor Good Fair Fair Poor Good Poor
Ammonium Perchlorate 5% 70° Good Good Good Good Good Fair
Ammonium Persulphate 5% 70° Good Good Good Poor Good Not Recommended Fair Good Good Good Not Recommended
Ammonium Phosphate 5% 70° Good Good Fair Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended

;

Ammonium Phosphate Saturated 70° Good Good Fair Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Ammonium Sulphate 1% and 5% 70° Good Good Fair Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Ammonium Sulphate 10% Boiling Good Good Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Ammonium Sulphate Saturated Boiling Good Good Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Poor Good Good
Ammonium Sulphite 70° Good Good Not Recommended Good Good Good
Ammonium Sulphite Boiling Good Good Not Recommended Good
Amyl Acetate Concentrated 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended
Amyl Chloride 70° Good Good Fair Fair Fair Good Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended
Aniline 3% 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Not Recommended Not Recommended Good
Aniline Conc. Crude 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Poor Good Fair
Aniline Hydrochloride 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended
Antimony Molten Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Good
Antimony Trichlordie 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Fair Fair Good Good Good
Arsenic Acid 150° Good Good Not Recommended Fair Good Good Good
Barium Carbonate 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Barium Chloride 5% 70° Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Barium Chloride Saturated 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Barium Chloride Aqueous Sol. Hot Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Barium Nitrate Aqueous Sol. Hot Good Good Poor Fair Fair
Medium Concentration Temp. °F 304 Stainless 316 Stainless 410 Stainless 416 Stainless 430 Stainless Nickel Alloy 400 Nickel Alloy C-276 PVC High Density Polyethylene Polypropylene FRP (Extren® 500/525)
Barium Sulphate 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Fair
Barium Sulphide Saturated 70° Good Good Good Good Good Poor Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Barley-Malt & Hops 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good
Beer 70° Good Good Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good
Benzene 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Fair Not Recommended Not Recommended Poor Not Recommended
Benzoic Acid 70° Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Fair Good
Benzol 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Poor Poor Good
Blood (Meat Juices) Cold Good Good Good Good Good
Borax 5% Hot Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Boric Acid 5% Hot Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good
Boric Acid Saturated Boiling Good Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good
Bromine 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Not Recommended Not Recommended
Buttermilk 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good
Butyric Acid 5% 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Good Not Recommended Fair Good Good
Butyric Acid 5% 150° Good Good Good Poor Fair Not Recommended Good Not Recommended
Butyric Acid. Aqueous Sol SP.G .964 Boiling Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Good
Calcium Carbonate 70° Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Calcium Chlorate Dilute Sol. 70° Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Calcium Chlorate Dilute Sol. Hot Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Calcium Chloride Dilute Sol. 70° Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Calcium Chloride Cone. Sol. 70° Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Calcium Hydroxide 10% Boiling Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Calcium Hydroxide 20% Boiling Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Calcium Hydroxide 50% Boiling Fair Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Calcium Hypochlorite 2% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Fair Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Calcium Sulphate Saturated 70° Good Good Good Poor Fair Good Good Good Good
Carbolic Acid CP 70° Good Good Poor Good Fair Good Good Good Good
Carbolic Acid CP Hot Good Good Good Fair Good Good Poor Good
Carbolic Bisulphide 70° Good Good Good Poor Fair Fair Good
Carbon Dioxide (Dry) 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Carbon Monoxide Gas 1400° Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Good Good Good Good
Carbon Monoxide Gas 1600° Good Good Good Poor Poor Good Good Good Good
Carbon Tetrachloride CP (dry) 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Not Recommended Fair Not Recommended
Carbon Tetrachloride CP (dry) Boiling Good Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended
Medium Concentration Temp. °F 304 Stainless 316 Stainless 410 Stainless 416 Stainless 430 Stainless Nickel Alloy 400 Nickel Alloy C-276 PVC High Density Polyethylene Polypropylene FRP (Extren® 500/525)
Carbon Tetrachloride Aqueous Sol. 10% 70° Fair Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended
Carbonic Acid 70° Fair Fair Fair Fair Poor Good Good Good Good Good
Chinosol Antis. Sol. 1-500 70° Good Good
Chlorascetic Acid 70° Poor Fair Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Fair Good Not Recommended
Chlorbenzol Pure, Dry 70° Good Good Good Fair Fair
Chloric Acid 70° Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended Fair Good Not Recommended
Chlorinated Water Saturated 70° Poor Fair Poor Fair Good Good Good Fair Not Recommended
Chorine Gas Dry Gas 70° Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good Fair Not Recommended
Chorine Gas Moist Gas 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Fair Not Recommended
Chloroform Dry Gas 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended
Chromic Acid CP 10% 70° Good Good Fair Fair Good Not Recommended Good Not Recommended Good Good Not Recommended
Chromic Acid CP 10% Boiling Fair Good Poor Poor Not Recommended Fair Good Good Good Not Recommended
Chromic Acid CP 50% Boiling Fair Fair Poor Poor Not Recommended Poor Fair Good Fair Not Recommended
Chromic Acid (Cont. S0₃) 50% Commercial 70° Good Good Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended Fair Fair Good Fair Not Recommended
Chromic Acid (Cont. S0₃) 50% Commercial Boiling Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended Poor Fair Good Poor Not Recommended
Chromium Plating Bath 70° Good Good Not Recommended Good
Cider 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Citric Acid 10% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Citric Acid 25% 70° Good Good Poor Good Fair Good Good Good Fair Good
Citric Acid 50% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Good Fair Good
Citric Acid 10% Boiling Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Good Good Poor Good
Citric Acid 25% Boiling Poor Good Poor Poor Poor Good Good Good Poor Good
Citric Acid 50% Boiling Poor Good Poor Poor Poor Good Good Good Poor Good
Coca-Cola Syrup (Pure) 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good
Coffee Boiling Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Copper Acetate Saturated 70° Good Good Good Poor Fair
Copper Carbonate Sat. Sol. In 50% NH₄oh 70° Good Good Good Not Recommended Fair Good Good
Copper Chloride 1% Aerated 70° Good Good Good Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Copper Chloride 5% Aerated 70° Fair Poor Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Copper Cyanide Saturated Boiling Good Good Good Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Copper Nitrate 5% 70° Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Fair Good Good Good Good
Copper Nitrate 50% Boiling Good Good Not Recommended Not Recommended Good Good Good Good
Copper Sulphate 5% Aerated 70° Good Good Good Good Poor Good Good Good Good Good
Copper Sulphate Saturated Boiling Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Medium Concentration Temp. °F 304 Stainless 316 Stainless 410 Stainless 416 Stainless 430 Stainless Nickel Alloy 400 Nickel Alloy C-276 PVC High Density Polyethylene Polypropylene FRP (Extren® 500/525)
Cottonseed Oil 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Creosote (Coal Tar) Hot Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Poor
Cyanogen Gas 70° Good Good Fair
Dichloroethane Boiling Good Good Fair Fair Poor Poor Not Recommended
Dinitrochlorobenzene Melted and Solidified 70° Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Dyewood Liquor 70° Good Good Good Good
Epsom Salt (Magnesium Sulphate) Cold & Hot Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good Good
Ether 70° Good Good Good Fair Fair Not Recommended Not Recommended
Ethyl Alcohol 10% to 100% 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Fair Good
Ethyl Chloride (Dry) 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended
Ethylene Glycol Conc. 70° Good Good Not Recommended Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Fatty Acids 100% 70° Fair Good Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Ferric Chloride All Concentrations 70° Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Ferric Hydroxide 70° Good Good Fair Fair
Ferric Nitrate All Concentrations 70° Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Ferric Sulphate 10% to 50% 70° Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Ferrous Chloride Saturated 70° Fair Not Recommended Fair Good Good Good Good
Ferrous Sulphate 10% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Ferrous Sulphate 10% Boiling Good Good Poor Poor Not Recommended Fair Good Good Fair Good
Fluorine (Gas) 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Good Not Recommended Good Not Recommended
Formalin Formaldehyde 40% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Good Fair Fair
Formic Acid 5% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Good Fair Good Poor Good Good Good
Formic Acid 10% 70° Good Good Poor Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good
Formic Acid 50% 70° Good Good Poor Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Formic Acid 100% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Formic Acid 10% Boiling Good Good Poor Poor Fair Good Fair Good Fair Not Recommended
Formic Acid 50% Boiling Good Good Poor Poor Fair Good Fair Good Fair Not Recommended
Formic Acid 100% Boiling Good Good Poor Fair Good Good Fair Not Recommended
Fruit Juices 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Fuel Oil Hot Good Good Good Good Good Fair Good
Furfural 70° Good Good Fair Fair Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended
Gallic Acids 5% 70° Good Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Not Recommended Good
Gallic Acids 5% 150° Good Good Poor Good Fair Fair Good Good
Gallic Acids Saturated (212°F) Boiling Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Good
Medium Concentration Temp. °F 304 Stainless 316 Stainless 410 Stainless 416 Stainless 430 Stainless Nickel Alloy 400 Nickel Alloy C-276 PVC High Density Polyethylene Polypropylene FRP (Extren® 500/525)
Gasoline 70° Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Fair Good Poor Good
Gasoline 70° Good Good Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Glue Dry 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Glue Solution Acid 70° and 140° Fair Good Good Good
Glycerine 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Hydrobromic Acid Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Fair Fair Good Good Good
Hydrochloric Acid All Concentrations 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Good Good Good
Hydrocyanic Acid Good Good Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good
Hydrofluoric Acid All Concentrations Hot and 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Fair Fair Good Good Not Recommended
Hydrofluosilicic Acid 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Fair Fair Not Recommended Good Not Recommended
Hydrogen Peroxide 70° Good Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Hydrogen Peroxide Boiling Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good Fair Good Not Recommended
Hydrogen Sulphide Dry 70° Good Good Poor Poor Good Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Hydrogen Sulphide Wet 70° Fair Good Poor Poor Fair Not Recommended Good Good Good Good Good
Iodine 70° Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Good Not Recommended Fair Good
Iodoform 70° Good Good Poor Fair
Kerosene 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Good Good
Ketchup 70° Good Good Good Good Good
Lactic Acid 1,5, and 10% 70° Good Good Good Not Recommended Fair Fair Good Good Good
Lactic Acid 1% Boiling Good Good Good Not Recommended Fair Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended
Lactic Acid 5% Boiling Fair Good Fair Not Recommended Fair Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended
Lactic Acid 10% Boiling Fair Good Poor Not Recommended Fair Poor Poor Poor Not Recommended
Lard 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Fair
Lead Molten 1000° Fair Fair Poor Poor Fair Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended
Lead Acetate 5% Boiling Good Good Fair Fair Good Good
Linseed Oil 70° Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Not Recommended Good Good
Lysol 70° Good Good Poor Poor Poor Good Good
Magnesium Carbonate All Concentrations 70° Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Good Good
Magnesium Chloride 1% and 5% 70° Good Good Poor Poor Good Good Good Good Good Good Good
Magnesium Chloride 1% and 5% Hot Fair Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Magnesium Hydroxide 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Magnesium Nitrate All Concentrations 70° Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Not Recommended
Magnesium Sulphate 10% 70° Good Good Good Fair Fair Good Fair Good Good
Magnesium Sulphate 10% Boiling Good Good Fair Fair Good Good

Pipe Clamp Design, Application & Installation Webinar

September 26, 2017

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