The maximum shear stress theory states that failure of a piping component occurs when the maximum shear stress exceeds the shear stress at the yield point in a tensile test.
The Maximum Principle Stress Theory and Maximum Shear Stress Theory
This theory states that yielding in a piping component occurs when the magnitude of any of the three mutually perpendicular principal stresses exceeds the yield strength of the material.
A term applied to calculations, which address the static and dynamic loading, resulting from the effects of gravity, temperature changes, internal pressures, fluid flow, seismic activity, and any external loads.
It is a visual representation of the effects of various loading conditions on a piping system between stress and strain.
Vibration, thermal bowing, creep, thermal fatigue, and steam/water.
Excessive flexibility causes an increase in material costs, pressure drops, and loss of pump efficiency.
Using flexible piping with bends and turns, use of expansion loops between fixed locations, or use of expansion joints between two anchor points of a pipe run.
Flexibility analysis assures that there is not any overstress or fatigue, leakage at joints or distortions are piping connections or terminals.
To produce neither excessive stress within the configuration and limit excessive end reaction at the piping terminal.
Conventional and nuclear power plant, petroleum refinery, chemical industry, natural gas transmission, food processing and pharma industry, water and sewage plants, air conditioning and refrigeration system.
Fluctuating temperatures, changes in pressure, and modification in flow rate.
Fluid velocity is controlled to prevent operational problems such as water hammer, steam hammer, relief valve discharge loading, and vibrational loads.
Piping systems use pumps to develop the pressure or head required to maintain the system design flow rates.
Piping system pressure drops must be maintained within reasonable values to limit the installed size of the system pumps and their prime movers.
System static head is the internal energy of