Piping Technology & Products, Inc. designed and manufactured special vertical type E constant spring supports for a power plant. These were designed and installed as pairs in a configuration similar to the typical G type constants. The advantage of using a pair of the special E rather than the conventional G type is that the total width is smaller as can be seen in Figure 1.
The constants were designed to support loads from 5,730 lbs to 10,690 lbs. They were fabricated from A36 Carbon steel. The dimensions of the individual constants are 60″ high, 16 1/2″ long, and 14″ in wide. The size of the supported pipe determined the width of the assembly. As with all constants built by PT&P, they were tested to verify that standard specifications for variation of load over the full range of travel were met.
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Piping Technology & Products, Inc., custom designed and fabricated a collection of constants for an oil refinery in New Jersey. This application required the use of suspended constants, 100-C and base constants, 200-F.
In order to support the lines at the oil refinery, PT&P designed the 100-C constant spring hangers (vertical constants suspended from beams) at two different loads and total travels. The 100-C constant with a load of 105,000-lbs. and total travel of 6″ (figure 1) is set to travel 1-3/4″ down and 1-15/16″ up. It is 38-3/8″ in width, 79-1/4″ in height and furnished with a double lug suspension to allow it to hang from a double point suspension beam.
In comparison to the aforementioned constant, this particular 100-C constant spring hanger (figure 2) has a load of 33,000 lbs. and a total travel of 4-1/2″, 3/8″ up and 1-1/2″ down. This specific constant is 24-1/4″ in width, 71″ in height and also furnished with a double lug suspension to suspend from a double point suspension beam. Although the dimensions of these two constants are similar, the size of the springs and cams are very different.
Opposed to the 100-C constant, the 200-F constant spring hanger is a horizontal constant used to support piping from below. These 200-F constant spring hangers were designed with loads of 40,750 lbs. and total travels of 4-1/2″, 3/8″ up and 1-3/4″ down. These constants will be used in conjunction with sway struts to support pipelines at the oil refinery.
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Piping Technology & Products, Inc. specially designed and fabricated four hundred 100-C, vertical constant load hangers for a plastics plant in Texas. The constants will be used to support a furnace standing three levels high.
In the plant, thirteen single beams confined to limited space will each hang thirty constants, therefore PT&P engineers were required to design the constants to weigh less than 150 pounds. The 136-pound constants with travels of 10 inches upward and a supporting load of 950 pounds, are 33 7/8″ in height and 8 7/8″ in width. They are also supplied with shop prime, painted finish to safeguard against the extremely hot temperatures of the furnace area. In order to insure quality and proper operations of the constants, a prototype was built and tested to MSS standards.
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Piping systems are used to transport gases, liquids and suspended solids between units of a plant. The temperatures of the contents and the pipe when the plant is in operation are often quite different from the ambient temperature of the surroundings. The heat transferred during changes in temperature causes metal pipe to expand and contract. Piping designers must provide for movement due to temperature changes and forces caused by pumps, gravity and other elements of the piping system.Read PT&P’s “How to Size a Spring Hanger” Technical Bulletin for more information.
PT&P Specially Designs and Fabricates Constants for a Radiant-Tube Support System
These constants are an essential component of the radiant-tube support system for a reforming furnace. Piping Technology custom designed these units to fit in the limited space available inside the furnace. The bolting patterns for the constants needed to be flexible enough that they could be attached to the supporting structure with any of the support system designs being considered.
Slide Plates: The “Sandwich” Concept
Piping Technology & Products, Inc. uses the “sandwich” concept when applying slide plates to our customers ‘ systems. Figure 1 shows a “sandwich” composed of two identical slide plates, one on top and another on the bottom. Each slide plate (which is like the bun of the “sandwich”) and a low coefficient of friction material which is bonded to the metal backing plate.
In a typical application a slide bearing plate is welded to a structural steel member which is strong enough to provide the required support, but whose coefficient of friction is too high.
Figure 2 shows an application in which a slide bearing plate is welded on top of one steel beam supporting the other beam. When the top beam moves (due to thermal expansion, for example) it slides across the surface of the bearing plate without contacting the supporting another beam. To return to our “sandwich” metaphor, the top half of the “sandwich” is bonded to the sliding beam, and to the bottom half to the supporting beam.
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Piping Technology & Products, Inc. specially designed and fabricated Big Ton Variable Springs for a chemical project in Canada. The supporting beams are 30″ in length with PTFE, 25% glass filled stainless steel slide plates. The Big Ton Springs were designed with six coil springs with external guides to prevent horizontal twisting and internal guides to withstand horizontal friction forces. These units were also designed for operating loads from 260,000 to 350,000 Newtons and hydro-test loads from 300,000 to 450,600 Newtons. A total of six units were painted with a special finish specified by the client.
Piping Technology & Products, Inc. specially designed twelve Type-F variable spring hangers (4-160-F, 8-170-F, 8-180-F) for an oil refinery in Indiana. These variable spring hangers were custom designed to support a Hydro-Test load 4.5 to 5 times the design load, which ranged from 7,988 lb. to 13,075 lb. The spring rates of the variable spring hangers ranged from 500 lb./in. to 750 lb./in. with travels of 1.15″ to 2.82″, upward movement respectively. The locking devices for these springs were manufactured using basic materials (rods, hex nuts and heavy pipe wall) and a special pressure plate to accommodate the application design criteria requested by the client. The base plate designed for these F- Type cans were modified to accommodate the locking devices.
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Piping Technology & Products, Inc. designed, manufactured and delivered a total of 8 constants to a power plant in Mexico. The designs consisted of 4 Horizontal U-Types Upthrust (Figure 1) and 4 Vertical F-Types (Figure 2) that are to support 24-inch diameter pipes. Each consisted of different sizes. The constants are designed for loads of 2,839 lbs. to 8,963 lbs., for Total Travels ranging from 7 to 3 inches. Constants were painted CZ-11 per customer request.
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Piping Technology and Products designed and built 24 custom pipe support assemblies to meet the unusual needs of an oil refinery in Mexico. The pipe hanger assemblies each consisted of a 200 E-type constant spring support and a cradle assembly. The constants are designed for loads of 9856 lb. to 13,288 lb., and for total travels ranging from 3.5″ to 5.5″. Operational conditions dictated that the constant springs have settings for emergency and start-up, in additional to the standard settings of cold for shipping, and hot for normal operations.
The cradle assemblies attached to the constants are to support pipes with operational temperatures of 1070°F to 1100°F. Thus while the constants could be made of A-36 steel, the assemblies could not. The pipe saddle itself was made by splitting a section of A387-11 chrome alloy pipe. The other support components were all made of 304 stainless steel. This includes a 1-3/4″ Eye Rod, two 27″ I.D. U-bolts, and two 33″ lengths of 3″ diameter SCH. 80 pipe.
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Piping Technology & Products, Inc. designed and built two, 68″ in height 100 U-Type constants for a power plant in Mexico. The vertical upthrust constants were designed to support 48,500 lb. each with a total upward travel of 3″. In order to prevent buckling of the constant housing, each constant was designed with five C7 x 14 3/4 lb. channels and a base plate of 26 3/8″ x 33 1/4″. These unique 100 U-Type upthrust constants were custom designed by PT&P to accommodate limited horizontal space requirement. The constants will be placed opposite to each other on a beam capable of supporting 99,000 lb. load of the pipe, plus the weight of the constants.
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PT&P specially designed two Type “B” variable spring hangers (2-250-B) for an oil company in Ryazan, Russia. These variable spring hangers were custom designed to support a load of 60,000 lbs. with a spring rate of 3,648 lbs./in. respectively. Due to loading requirements, these variable spring hangers were also designed to accommodate a travel of 1″, upward movement.
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