Shown above are hydraulic snubbers which are used to protect critical components in refineries, power plants and other industrial plants from sudden movement by the attached piping system. Engineers specify these for systems subject to sudden accelerations caused by earthquakes, extreme wind loads or water hammer. Hydraulic snubbers resist sudden rapid movement of the pipe by limiting the flow rate of the fluid inside the snubber. The device is designed to slow movement, such as would be expected during thermal expansion, has practically no resistance, but sudden rapid movement is resisted with a force proportional to the velocity raised to a power, where the power is determined by the orifice valve and flow pattern in the design. Selection of materials and liquids used will depend on the environment where the snubber is installed.
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